Wednesday, May 12, 2010
The 18 Parvas
1. Adi Parva (The Book of the Beginning) - 1-19 - How the Mahabharata came to be narrated by Sauti to the assembled rishis at Naimisharanya. The recital of the Mahabharata at the sarpasattra of Janamejaya by Vaishampayana at Takshila. The history of the Bharata race is told in detail and the parva also traces history of the Bhrigu race. The birth and early life of the Kuru princes. (adi means first)
2. Sabha Parva (The Book of the Assembly Hall) - 20-28 - Maya Danava erects the palace and court (sabha), at Indraprastha. Life at the court, Yudhishthira's Rajasuya Yajna, the game of dice, and the eventual exile of the Pandavas.
3. Vana Parva also Aranyaka-parva, Aranya-parva (The Book of the
Forest) - 29-44 - The twelve years of exile in the forest (aranya).
4. Virata Parva (The Book of Virata) - 45-48 - The year in incognito spent at the court of Virata.
5. Udyoga Parva (The Book of the Effort) - 49-59 - Preparations for war and efforts to bring about peace between the Kurus and the Pandavas which eventually fail (udyoga means effort or work).
6. Bhishma Parva (The Book of Bhishma) - 60-64 - The first part of the great battle, with Bhishma as commander for the Kauravas and his fall on the bed of arrows.
7. Drona Parva (The Book of Drona) - 65-72 - The battle continues, with Drona as commander. This is the major book of the war. Most of the great warriors on both sides are dead by the end of this book.
8. Karna Parva (The Book of Karna) – 73 - The battle again, withKarna as commander.
9. Shalya Parva (The Book of Shalya) - 74-77 - The last day of the battle, withShalya as commander. Also told in detail is the pilgrimage of Balarama to the fords of the river Saraswati and the mace fight between Bhima and Duryodhana which ends the war, since Bhima kills Duryodhana by smashing him on the thighs with a mace.
10. Sauptika Parva (The Book of the Sleeping Warriors) - 78-80 - Ashvattama, Kripa and Kritavarma kill the remaining Pandava army in their sleep. Only 7 warriors remain on the Pandava side and 3 on the Kaurava side.
11. Stri Parva (The Book of the Women) - 81-85 - Gandhari, Kunti and the women (stri) of the Kurus and Pandavas lament the dead.
12. Shanti Parva (The Book of Peace) - 86-88 - The crowning of Yudhisthira as king of Hastinapura, and instructions from Bhishma for the newly anointed king on society, economics and politics. This is the longest book of the Mahabharata (shanti means peace).
13. Anushasana Parva (The Book of the Instructions) - 89-90 - The final instructions (anushasana) from Bhishma.
14. Ashvamedhika Parva (The Book of the Horse Sacrifice) - 91-92 - The royal ceremony of the Ashvamedha (Horse sacrifice) conducted by Yudhisthira. The world conquest by Arjuna. The Anugita is told by
Krishna to Arjuna.
15. Ashramavasika Parva (The Book of the Hermitage) - 93-95 - The eventual deaths of Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti in a forest fire when they are living in a hermitage in the
Himalayas. Vidura predeceases them and Sanjaya on Dhritarashtra's bidding goes to live in the higher Himalayas.
16. Mausala Parva (The Book of the Clubs) – 96 - The infighting between the Yadavs with maces (mausala) and the eventual destruction of the Yadavas.
17. Mahaprasthanika Parva (The Book of the Great Journey) – 97 - The great journey of Yudhisthira and his brothers across the whole country and finally their ascent of the great
Himalayas where each Pandava falls except for Yudhisthira.
18. Svargarohana Parva (The Book of the Ascent to Heaven) – 98 - Yudhisthira's final test and the return of the Pandavas to the spiritual world (svarga).